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Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a rare immune-mediated disorder affecting the peripheral nervous system. Typical manifestations include proximal and distal sensory and motor impairment in four limbs, developing over more than eight weeks.

Schilder's Disease

A rare progressive myelinoclastic  disorder of CNS affecting younger adulthood (between 7 and 12 years of age) and considered to be the variant of multiple sclerosis.

Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis

Also known as Weston-Hurst syndrome most commonly affects the cerebrum followed by the cerebellum, brain stem, or spinal cord. As its pathogenesis involves progressive hemorrhagic demyelination of white matter, MRI is considered the diagnostic test of choice to detect any diffuse edema, confluent lesions, or petechial hemorrhage. Failure to provide early treatment will result in a poor prognosis or even death in a few days.

Transverse Myelitis

Inflammatory disorder in which injury to spinal cord results in rapid onset of neurological symptoms such as weakness, sensory loss and autonomic dysfunction.

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) Is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease of CNS involving white matter in the brain and spinal cord. Grey matter (basal ganglia, thalamus, and even cortical grey matter) may be involved.

Facial Nerve Palsy

Facial (nerve) palsy is a neurological condition that is commonly categorized as central or peripheral based on the location of the lesion. Symptoms and signs experienced by the patient help in diagnosing the area of the lesion. In idiopathic facial nerve palsy, the extent of nerve damage determines the outcome. In this chapter, we focus on discussing symptoms to distinguish both types of facial palsy along with management and prognosis of the disease

CNS Vasculitis

CNS vasculitis is classified as Primary angiitis of CNS, Systemic vasculitis involving CNS, Secondary (Secondary CNS vasculitis). Treatment is aggressive for the first 6-8 months and then tapered depending upon the resolution of symptoms. Monitoring of treatment is necessary. MRI should be done after 4-6 weeks of initiation of therapy and afterward done every 3-4 months in the first year of treatment.