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Vertigo is a false feeling of motion caused by dysfunction of the inner ear or the central vestibular system. This is a common complaint from patients in a primary care setting and emergency room. A thorough neurological examination and history taking are crucial to narrow down the diagnosis. Physicians need to apply the correct bedside testing to the right patient to avoid unnecessary neuroimaging.

Approach to Facial Weakness

Facial nerve palsy can be defined as paralysis of any structure innervated by the facial nerve, thus inhibiting facial expression.

Posterior Cerebral Circulation

Posterior circulation of the brain consists of 2 vertebral arteries, 1 basilar artery, 2 posterior cerebral arteries and their branches.

Collateral Cerebral Circulation

Absence of collateral function due to hypoplasia or stenosis of collateral arteries may lead to a higher risk of stroke in patients with severe internal carotid artery occlusive disease

Anterior Cerebral Circulation

Anterior circulation of the brain comprises of internal carotid artery and its branches.

Basics of EEG

20 minutes of artifact-free recording of epileptiform activity that consists of synchronized depolarization and repolarization of thalamic and cortical neurons. 20-electrode placement system along with bipolar and referential montages allows comparison of epileptiform activity on both sides of the brain as well as localization of seizure. Many provocative techniques such as hyperventilation, intermittent photic stimulation, and sleep are used to produce epileptiform waves.

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