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Metabolic Causes of Epilepsy - An Introduction

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by repeated aberrant electrical activity in the brain and recurrent spontaneous seizures.

Quantitative EEG - An Introduction

Quantitative Electroencephalography (qEEG) is the digital analysis of the raw EEG data with the application of mathematical and analytical techniques to characterize the EEG signal.

Basics of EEG

20 minutes of artifact-free recording of epileptiform activity that consists of synchronized depolarization and repolarization of thalamic and cortical neurons. 20-electrode placement system along with bipolar and referential montages allows comparison of epileptiform activity on both sides of the brain as well as localization of seizure. Many provocative techniques such as hyperventilation, intermittent photic stimulation, and sleep are used to produce epileptiform waves.

Differentiating Frontal Lobe Epilepsy from Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures

There are three major categories of seizures: 1) Epileptic seizures (ES), 2) Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures (PNES), 3) Physiologic nonepileptic events (NEEs). PNES/NESS are can be difficult to distinguish from ES.

Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP)

Sudden, unexpected, non-traumatic, non-drowning, witnessed or unwitnessed death, in any individual who has history of epilepsy, excludes documented status epilepticus and post-mortem examination does not reveal any cause (anatomical or toxicological) of death.

Seizures prophylaxis in Chronic Subdural Hematoma

Anti-seizures medications (ASM) are sometimes used prophylactically in CSDH, but no current guidelines are available for ASM therapy

Status Epilepticus: Classification, Clinical Features, and Diagnosis

Classifying the type of status epilepticus is important in determining morbidity and aggressiveness of treatment required. Clinical manifestations vary according to the type of seizure the patient experiences and yet diagnosis is made clinically based on those clinical manifestations. This chapter will help you understand the classification and how to diagnose patient based on clinical features.

Refractory Status Epilepticus

When patients fail first-line therapy which is a sufficient dose of benzodiazepines and at least one AED as second-line therapy, irrespective of time this is termed refractory status epilepticus. Primary drugs being used for refractory status epilepticus are Midazolam, Propofol, and Ketamine while other interventions include DBS, surgery, VNS, etc. This chapter focuses on the treatment strategies being involved to treat patients with refractory status epilepticus

Epilepsy Classification

The 2017 ILAE classification of seizures, epilepsies, and epilepsy syndromes aims to group seizures according to clinical presentation and its origin in the brain. and epilepsies according to seizure type, age of onset, probability of remission, EEG findings, radiologic findings, and genetics.

Continuous EEG - Indication and Utilizations

Continuous EEG monitoring device with a video camera for at least 24 hours in a conscious patient reflecting cortical synaptic activity. CEEG is most commonly performed in ICU settings in order to monitor critically ill patients. Neuronal activity depends on the blood supply hence it makes EEG monitoring reliable to check for brain ischemia. Automated displays help to interpret raw EEG effectively. Commonly used techniques for these displays are Color density spectral array and Amplitude-integrated EEG. This chapter will help you understand the concepts of continuous EEG, it’s indications, and utilization in different settings along with the emphasis on the advantages to use this technique.

Seizure prophylaxis in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Acute seizures are a common complication following spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). The incidence of post ICH seizures rate is estimated to be between 4%-16%. Current guidelines have limited recommendations due to the paucity of data.

Status Epilepticus - Management, Prognosis, and EEG utilization

Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as ≥5 minutes of continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity or recurrent seizure activity without recovery (returning to baseline) between seizures